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By January of 2019, this page had grown to 300 photos & diagrams. It had become much too large (ca. 42 MB download size), which caused long download times for some users. I decided to make a separate page for each Bernhard station. Please continue to use the (unchanged) list above and update your bookmarks, if necessary. The general introduction, 3D photos, and the complete references list remain on this page.


©2004-2019 F. Dörenberg, unless stated otherwise. All rights reserved worldwide. No part of this publication may be used without permission from the author.


Latest page update: July 2020 (rearranged and expanded text, replaced Fig. 2)

Previous page updates: February 2020 (added ref. 210X-201AE, 244M-244Q); November 2019 (added ref. 252A-252C). October 2019 (uploaded complete map for ref. 210A & 210C, added maps ref. 210E-201W, uploaded clean copy of ref. 179 and updated associated text, added ref. 244D-244K, added ref. 245D); 31 August 2019 (added ref. 244A-C, 245A-245C, 246, 255)


red-blue line

INTRODUCTION

The FuSAn 724/725 "Bernhard" system is the ground-station ("Stellung", "Anlage") of the "Bernhard/Bernhardine" radio-navigation system, used by the Luftwaffe in WW2, primarily for nightfighters. The beacon-station comprises a large rotating antenna system (ca. 25 x 35 meter). The FuG 120 "Bernhardine" is the associated Hellschreiber-printer and control electronics that were used in the aircraft. It printed the antenna-azimuth data transmitted by a "Bernhard" station.

Berhard station

Fig. 1: The "Bernhard" ground-station of the "Bernhard/Bernhardine" radio-navigation system

(click here to get full size)

Obviously, the stations were installed on a high point in the area, typically a hill top. Each Bernhard ground station ("Stellung") had a "Be" identification number. The construction of the Bernhard stations was planned and executed in three waves (ref. 179):

Phase 1. The original plan was to provide Luftwaffe day-time combat aircraft with "Bernhard" radio-navigation coverage throughout occupied France by late summer of 1944. This was to support the intercept of Allied aircraft from (or returning to) Britain. Construction of all Berhard stations in France (Be-1 through Be-7) and in The Netherlands (Be-8) was either completed or largely finished by that deadline. Per ref. 98, five stations in France were completed by September of 1944: Be-1, Be-2, Be-4, Be-6, Be-7. The initial group of eight stations roughly aligns with the section nearest Britain of the "Atlantic Wall" coastal defense line: some 12000 (!) bunkers and other constructions, against a British/Allied invasion across the sea.

Note that Be-0 is not on this initial list, even though it was the first station to be constructed! In ref. 179, it is simply referred to as "Be", without a number. This Telefunken prototype and test station was located near Berlin. This makes sense, as Berlin was the capital of Germany, seat of the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (the German Air Ministry), there were Luftwaffe research establishments and test-sites in the area, as well as the companies instrumental in radio-navigation systems (Telefunken, Lorenz,...). Also, at that time, German leadership may still have been in a state of denial regarding the need for fighter defense in the Berlin area...

Overall, these ground stations were constructed between late-1941 and the end of the war (ref. 2A, 74, 96, 177, 179). According to ref. 201E (map), Be-9 was probably completed by August of 1944.

Early spring of 1944, individual Luftwaffe night-fighter units demanded to be equipped with "Bernhard" capability. However, the on-board "Bernhardine" system was not available in sufficient numbers. This led the Luftflottenkommando 3 (Lfl.Kdo, air fleet command) and the IX Flieger Korps (Fl.Korps, air corps command containing several divisions) on 29 March and 1 April of 1944 respectively, to abandon the equipage of combat aircraft with "Bernhardine", and request full reallocation of "Bernhardine" equipment to night-fighters in the western areas. The Generalnachrichtenhrer (Gen.Nafü; head of the Nachrichtenverbindungswesen (NVM) signal corps) approved this request several days later, and ordered the equipage of night-fighter aircraft. Note: the NVM organisation was responsible for training and operations of the Luftwaffe Signal Corps, incl. air traffic control and radio navigation.

Phase 2. Around the same time, the planning of the construction of additional Bernhard stations was ordered, as wel as the actual construction of several of them. The purpose was to provide coverage to night-fighters throughout the entire Reichsgebiet. I.e., the German state, with its borders of 31 December 1937. With the present-day national borders, this area corresponds to the Germany, western and northeastern Poland (former Pommern/Pommerania, Schlesien/Silesia, and Ostpreußen/East Prussia), and the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave (part of Russia) between Poland and Lithuania (D: Litauen).

By April of 1944, the General der Jagdflieger (GdJ, Adolf Galland at that time) had not yet decided the general introduction of the Bernhard/Bernhardine system to night-fighters. This is why the Generalnachrichtenführer demanded him on 9 April 1944, to clear the introduction of this system for the entire freie Nachtjagd (twin-engine night-fighters with on-board radar, independent of fighter guidance from ground-based radar and/or search-lights). Upon demonstration of printed command uplink capability, the GdJ recognized the utility of the Bernhard/Bernhardine system. On 22 July 1944, he demanded its introduction on all night-fighter aircraft. Despite the initial rejection by the GdJ, the GenNafü had already ordered increased production of "Bernhardine" equipment and had ordered the construction of Bernhard stations in the Reichsgebiet (Be-9 through Be-12, also see Fig. 3 below).

Phase 3. Following the Allied invasion in Normandie on 6 June of 1944, the westernmost Bernhard stations were damaged by air raids and out of commission. On 22 June 1944, the dismantling of Be-1 through Be-5 and of Be-7 was ordered. At the same time, the construction of Be-13, Be-14, and Be-16 was ordered. One stated reason for the dismantling was lack of availability of equipment for the new Bernhard stations. However, due to the rapidly evolving war situation, transportation of equipment from France to the Reichsgebiet had to be halted. This is why late August 1944, the Germans destroyed Be-6 by explosive demolition. Around the same time, the Generalnachrichtenführer ordered the construction of an additional ten Bernhard stations, with the highest urgency level.

On 3 September 1944, the operational situation was as follows (ref. 179):

  • Only Be-0 and Be-10 were (still) operational.
  • Be-9 was supposed to become operational early September, Be-11 late September, and Be-12 late October.
  • Though installation of the antenna system of Be-12 was indeed completed (ref. 177A), it is unclear if the emtire station was ever completed and operational.
  • Next in line to be completed was Be-13, with equipment transferred from the (to be) dismantled Be-8.
  • Note that per ref. 99 and 104, it was actually equipment from Be-7 and Be-11 that was transferred to the Be-13 location, as well as a factory-new set of equipment.
  • The antenna system of Be-13 was delivered by the factory and installed (ref. 177A-177C).
  • Completion of Be-14, Be-15, and Be-16 depended on the industrial situation.
  • Note: the antenna systems for Be-14 and Be-16 were manufactured, but never delivered. The antenna system of Be-15 was delivered to the station site, but never installed. Ref. 177A-177C.

According to ref. 6D, only three stations were still operational at the end of the war: Be-0, Be-9, and Be-10; the last two were the only Be-stations that ever had text-messaging capability. This was unique and "world's first" feature of the Bernhard/Bernhardine system! Seventy (!) years later, in 2015, a modern up-link system became mandatory in European airspace above 28500 ft for non-critical commands: Controller-Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC).

I was able to confirm the location of most Be-numbers with the aid of WW2 charts of the Luftwaffe Radio Corps (Luftnachrichten) and charts for night-fighter navigation (Nachtjagdnavigation). But it was not until several years later, in April of 2017, that I could finally compile the complete and consistent list. This was based on billing information from the company that built and installed the antenna systems ("Hein, Lehmann & Co.", ref. 177A/B/C), and 1944 presentation notes to the General-Nachrichtenführer (ref. 179). Telefunken did place orders for the antenna systems of Be-stations through Be-22 (purchase order nr. 253/40567, ref. 177A-177C). Manufacturing of the antennas for Be-17 through Be-22 was only about 50% completed by the end of the war. It is unknown where the stations Be-17 through Be-22 were supposed to be built.

The table below list all known stations. Special thanks goes to Gérard Chatry, for helping me precisely locate some of the stations and gather information on a number of them. I have provided a file with the exact station coordinates (both in decimal degrees and degrees-minutes-seconds) as ref. 222.

Berhard station

Table 1: List of Bernhard stations


The map below shows the location of stations Be-0 through Be-16. They form a loose grid:

Berhard station

Fig. 2: Location of "Bernhard" ground stations Be-0 ‒ Be-16


I have made a full-size interactive Google-map version of this map available here, with station locations markers. In most cases, you can fully zoom-in the satellite image map, and see the actual the remains of the station structures. Click on any marker icon, to get the associated information. You can click-and-drag the map with your mouse, and zoom in & out with your mouse-wheel (or use the buttons in the bottom left-hand corner of the map). Note: you must have maps.googleapis.com enabled in your browser.

Note: each ground stations had a single-letter identifier ("Kennbuchstabe") that was used in the compass rose (azimuth) information that it transmitted in Hellschreiber format. I do not know the mapping between these identifier letters and the corresponding Bernhard stations. Ref. 99 suggests that "K" stood for the Bredstedt station (Be-9) near Leck in Schleswig-Holstein. However, per ref. 6C, this station had the identifier "X"... As each station had a single identifier letter, no more than 26 stations could be identified. In total, 23 of the 26 letters were allocated: Be-0 through Be-22. Furthermore, the aircraft radios used for receiving the Bernhard signals only had 32 channels. But this may not have been a practical limitation: at any location, not all Be-stations were within reception range, and the stations were only active when enemy aircraft were in their coverage area or approaching that area.

The title of the next map suggests that it only shows Be-stations located in the Reichsgebiet. However, it covers Be-0, Be-6, and Be-8 through Be-16. I.e., also Be-stations in occupied countries outside the official Reichsgebiet. The symbols of Be-9, 12, 15, and 16 are dashed. The legend of the map (dated 1 July 1944) does not indicate the meaning of this. On most other German maps, it means "under construction" or "planned or under construction".

Berhard station

Fig. 3: Coverage of the "Bernhard" stations in the "Reichsgebiet", with 400 km range rings

(source: ref. 210B)

The map below shows the "Bernhard" locations, overlaid with the location of airfields used by the Luftwaffe (at some point in time during the war) and by the RAF/USAF. It also shows a number of German defence lines and areas:

  • the German Atlantic Wall ("Atlantikwall") of coastal defences; it ran from the top of Norway, all the way down to Spain.
  • Air Defence Zone West ("Luftverteidingszone West", LVZ). It was supposed to be fully implemented in 1942, but was never completed. Establishment of Zone "East" was not ordered until weeks before the end of the war (ref. 132C).
  • Night-fighter defence line. It was referred to as the "Kammhuber Line" by the British and US intelligence services.
  • During the course of the war, a number of night fighter methods ("Nachtjagdverfahren") were developed, besides the regular day-time method ("Tagjagd"): helle Nachtjagd, dunkle Nachtjagd, kombinierte helle und dunkle Nachtjagd, dunkle Fern-Nachtjagd, Verfolgungsnachtjagd, Objektnachtjagd, ortsgebundene Nachtjagd "Himmelbett", Nachtjagdverfahren "Wilde Sau" ("wild boar"), Nachtjagdverfahren "Zahme Sau" ("tame boar"), and Mosquito-Nachtjagd. Ref. 244A-244C.
  • Combined Night-fighter areas ("kombinierte Nachtjagd" (KONAJA) Räume). HENAJA ("Helle Nachtjagd") was another night-fighter control method. Enemy bombers were captured and tracked with radar, and illuminated with radar-controlled search lights (hence "helle" = "bright" or "illuminated", as opposed to the dark "dunkle Nachtjagd", with radar and guidance via radio but unassisted by searchlights). Fighter aircraft were then guided by fighter control, to intercept the bomber. Ref. 132G. In the KONAJA system, the HENAJA system was combined with local anti-aircraft gun sites (Flugzeugabwehrkanone, "FLAK").

Berhard station

Fig. 5: Location of "Bernhard" stations, airfields and defence lines (airfield locations are approximate)

(source of airfield & air defence data: ref. 132A-132H; the Luftwaffe used 1000-1500 airfields within the Reich & occupied countries, ref. 255)

On maps of the Luftnachrichten Signal Corps, radio-navigation ground-stations are marked with a square box that has a lightning bolt emanating from the top. The bolt indicates that it is a transmitter. The type of navigation system is indicated by one or two letters inside the box. For several beacon types, the station number is marked below the square box. The "Bernhard" beacons are marked with the letters "Be".

Bernhard map symbols

Fig. 6: Map symbols for some Luftwaffe radio-navigation beacons (Funknavigations-Anlagen)

(sources include ref. 210A, 210B; note: some beacon types were not numbered)


The next sections show many photos (some in 3D) of the various Bernhard sites. I have personally visited the remains of the stations at St.-Michel-Mont-Mercure/Pouzauges (France, 2011), Venusberg/Aidlingen (Germany, 2012), Teste-de-Buch/Archachon (France, 2012),and Buke (Germany, 2015).


3D / STEREOSCOPIC PHOTOS OF "BERNHARD" STATIONS

3D

You will need a pair of red+green glasses to view these images in 3D!

Berhard station

Fig. 288: Anaglyph 3D/stereoscopic photo of the Bernhard site at La Pernelle

(original left & right images: p. 4.09 in ref. 13; full-size image is here; side-by-side stereogram is here)

3D photos below have not been made with my Stereo Realist stereoscopic camera, but by sequentially taking two pictures with my digital snapshot camera (laterally displaced ≈ 6.3 cm (2½") between the left & right shot). I have converted the stereo-pair photos into red/green anaglyphic 3D images, with StereoMaker (freeware). I have made hundreds of stereoscopic photos over the years. 3D photos that I made of my Hellschreiber machines and German WWII equipment are on this page. A selection of my 3D photos of other subjects (airplanes, animals, ...) is on this page.

Berhard station

Fig. 289: Access to the central building of the Bernhard station at Aidlingen/Venusberg


Berhard station

Fig. 290: The central building of the Bernhard station at Aidlingen/Venusberg


Berhard station

Fig. 291: The octagonal mounting plate on top of the central building at Aidlingen/Venusberg


Berhard station

Fig. 292: The central building of the Bernhard station at Arcachon/Teste de Buch


Berhard station

Fig. 293: The central building of the Bernhard station at Arcachon/Teste de Buch


Berhard station

Fig. 294: The circular track of the Bernhard station at Arcachon/Teste de Buch



UNKNOWN / UNCONFIRMED / UNCLEAR ASPECTS

The following aspects of Be-1 to Be-16 are still unknown, unconfirmed, and/or unclear (to me):

  • What is the function of the three slots in the concrete sidewall of the round building at La Pernelle?
  • What is the identifier letter "Kennbuchstabe" (callsign) of all stations?
  • At La Pernelle, even in 1946, the four "doghouses" were still not removed/dismantled. Too hard to dismantle, or no usable material?
  • What is the purpose of the round holes on the inside of the concrete ring at Trzebnica/Trebnitz, and in the outside of the base of the the concrete ring at Szymbark?
  • What is the purpose of the several several small I-beams embedded into the concrete between some of the rail ties in the concrete ring at Arcachon?

If you have any additional information, please contact me!


REFERENCES

  • Ref. 2: pages from the reknowned books and other documents by Fritz Trenkle
  • Ref. 2A: "Die deutschen Funkführungsverfahren bis 1945" ["The German radio guidance systems through 1945"], Fritz Trenkle, Dr. Alfred Hüthig Verlag, 1987, ISBN 3778516477, 215 pp.
  • Ref. 2A1: p. 149 (X-Uhr / X-system clock).
  • Ref. 2A2: pp. 76-110, 224.
  • Ref. 2B: pp. 62, 94-102 in "Die deutschen Funk-Navigations- und Funk-Führungsverfahren bis 1945" ["The German radio navigation & guidance procedures through 1945"], Fritz Trenkle, Motorbuch Verlag, 1995, 208 pp., ISBN-10: 3879436150.
  • Ref. 2C: "Bordfunkgeräte - vom Funkensender zum Bordradar" ["On board radio equipment - from spark transmitter to radar"], Fritz Trenkle, Bernard und Graefe Verlag (publ.), 1986, 283 pp., ISBN 3-7637-5289-7.
  • Ref. 2C1: p. 61-63 - "Kommandoübertragungszusätze" ["Command uplink accessories"].
  • Ref. 2C2: pp. 97-103 - "Leitstrahl-Verfahren" ["Guidance-beam systems"].
  • Ref. 2C3: p. 108 - photo "Große Knickebein Anlage bei Kleve", ["Large Knickebein installation near Cleves"; note: incorrectly identified by Trenkle as station K4 at Kleve, instead of K2 at Bredstedt].
  • Ref. 2C4: pp. 119-130 - "Drehfunkverfahren" ["Rotating beam systems"].
  • Ref. 2D: "Verzeichnis deutscher Bordfunkgeräte aller Art (einschl. der mit Fu G-Nr. belegten akust. und UR-Geräte)". "Kenntnis der Allierten von deutschen Bordfunkgeräten (Winter 1944/45, nach engl. amerik. Anweisungen zur Auswertung deutscher Beutegeräte, Stand Februar 1945" [list of German on-board radio equipment, incl. acoustic and infrared; list of equipment types/models captured by Allied forces]. Manuscript notes of Fritz Trenkle, incl. for "Funkgeräte Katalog Deutschland 1908-1918 und 1919-1945", 44 pp. Source: Archives of Deutsches Technik Museum Berlin, retrieved from www.deutscheluftwaffe.com on 19 February 2020. [pdf]
  • Ref. 5: "Instruments of Darkness: The History of Electronic Warfare, 1939-1945", new ed., Alfred Price, Greenhill Books, 2005, 272 pp., ISBN-10: 1853676160; original edition: William Kimber and Co., Ltd, 1967.
  • Ref. 5A: pp. 236-237; Same as pp. 274-275 in the excellent German translation: "Herrschaft über die Nacht: Spionen jagen Radar", Alfred Price, publ.: Bertelsmann Sachbuchverlag Reinhard Mohn, 1968, 304 pp., ASIN B0000BT35X.
  • Ref. 5B: p. 82 - second of sixteen photo pages.
  • Ref. 6: Transcribed reports from the British Air Ministry, Assistant Director of Intelligence (Prisoner Interrogation),  A.D.I. (K) (a.k.a. "Felkin Reports", after their author). Source: The National Archives of the UK, ref. AIR40/2875 and 2876. Retrieved from www.cdvandt.org.
  • Ref. 6A: §19-23 in "Some further notes on G.A.F. Pathfinder procedure",  S.D. Felkin, A.D.I.(K) Report No. 187/1944, 25 April 1944, 5 pp.
  • Ref. 6B: §57-59 in "G.A.F. night fighters - R.A.F. Bomber Command countermeasures and their influence on German night fighter tactics" [transcript], S.D. Felkin, A.D.I.(K) Report No. 599/1944, 2 November 1944, 16 pp.
  • Ref. 6C: G.A.F. Night Fighters - Recent Developments in German Night Fighting",  S.D. Felkin, A.D.I. (K) Report No. 125/1945, January 1945, 18 pp.
  • Ref. 6D: "Radio and Radar Equipment in the Luftwaffe - II, Navigational Aids", S.D. Felkin, A.D.I. (K) Report No. 357/1945, 1945, 18 pp.
  • Ref. 6E: "Equipment of a Y-Site", S.D. Felkin, A.D.I.(K) Report No. 527B/1944, 25 Sept 1944, 13 pp.
  • Ref. 6F: "Radio and Radar Equipment in the Luftwaffe- I. Blind Landing and Airborne Communications Equipment" [report of interrogations of General Martini and other PoW's; topics: LFF, JLFF, Fu Bl 2, AWG 1, FuG 10 P, FuGe 16, FuGe 17, FuGe 18, FuGe 15, FuGe 24, FuGe 29], S.D. Felkin, A.D.I.(K) Report No. 343/1945, 1 July 1945, 6 pp.
  • Ref. 6G: "The GAF (German Air Force) Signals Organisation in the War" [incl. X-System, X-beam, Knickebein, Y-System (Benito), Zyklop/Cyclop, Erika, Sonne beacons in Spain, radar, FuG25/25A, IFF, Panorama, Centimetre Wave R&D, Egon, Gee, H2S, Berlin-Gerät, Kammhuber night fighting, Window, Wilde Sau, HS293], Samuel Denys Felkin, A.D.I.(K) Report No. 334/1945, 1 July 1945, 27 pp.
  • Ref. 6H: "Fighter defence of Germany - Control of fighters by the "Y" Procedure", Samuel Denys Felkin, A.D.I.(K) Report No. 525/1944, 14 pp
  • Ref. 8: to be allocated.
  • Ref. 13: "Japanese Electronics", OPNAV-16-VP101, Photographic Intelligence - Report 1, U.S. Naval Photographic Intelligence Center, January 1945, 166 pp. [33 MB]
  • Ref. 15: section 4 in "Beschreibung und Betriebsvorschrift für Funk-Navigationsanlage FuG 120" [Description and Operating Manual for Radio-Navigation System FuG 120], Telefunken G.m.b.H., document FN-T-GB Nr. 1932, December 1944, 43 pp. [30 MB]
  • Ref. 74: "Blind landing and airborne communications equipment. Radio and Radar Equipment in the Luftwaffe - II", S.D. Felkin, Air Ministry Directorate of Intelligence, London/UK, A.D.I. (K) report no. 343/1945, July 1945, 6 pp.
  • Ref. 89: "Le crash des Lt Simpson et Baker", Association "Forced Landing", 2003.  [pdf]
  • Ref. 90:
  • Ref. 90A: no longer used.
  • Ref. 90B: pp. 21, 57, 58 in "Stations radar et radio-navigation sur le Mur de l'Atlantique - Spécial Normandie d'Antifer à Granville", Alain Chazette, Bernard Paich, Alain Destouches, Jacques Tomine, Jörg Poweleit, Michaël Svejgaard, Histoire & Fortifications, 2015, 96 pp
  • supplement: "Stations radar et de radio-navigation sur le Mur de l'Atlantique (complement photos)", 32 pp.
  • Ref. 90C: p. 161 in "Stations radar et radio-navigation sur le Mur de l'Atlantique - Volume 2 -Spécial Belgique - Nord - Pas-de-Calais - Picardie - Haute-Normandie", Alain Chazette, Bernard Paich, Pierre Nowak, Alain Destouches, Jacques Tomine, Ingrid Paindavoine, Histoire & Fortifications, 2016, 160 pp.
  • Ref. 90D: "Drawing of a Funk Sende Anlage Bernard 724/725 bunker", 14-March-2015 thread in Axis History Forum; used with permission.
  • Ref. 90E: "German Military Symbols", U.S. War Dept., General Staff, Military Intelligence Service, January 1943, 152 pp. (public domain, no ©)
  • Ref. 91: pp. 60-69 in "Mémoires sans concessions", Yves Rocard, Grasset, 1988, 302 pp., ISBN-10: 2246411211
  • Ref. 93: pp. 115-117 in "The High-Frequency War - A Survey of German Electronic Development", E.S. Henning, HQ Air Materiel Command (AFMC), Wright Field, Dayton/OH, Summary report No. F-SU-1109-ND, 4 June 1946 (US Gov't, hence no copyright).  [file size: 225 MB]
  • Ref. 94: "Exkursion zu Abwehranlage der Luftwaffe - Holzgerlinger Naturfreunde auf dem Aidlinger Venusberg: Überreste aus dem Zweiten Weltkrieg", in "Kreiszeitung Böblinger Bote" of 31-July-2014  [pdf]
  • Ref. 95: "Wie es damals war - Bau der "Radarstation" auf dem Venusberg - Wilhelm Bauer war als Kind dabei und erinnert sich",  Siegrid Krülle, p. 17 in "Aidlinger Nachrichten", Nr. 18, 28 April 2015
  • Ref. 96: "No. 80 Wing Royal Air Force Historical Report 1940-1945", Narrative AIR41/46, Air Ministry and Ministry of Defence, Air Historical Branch, 1946
  • Ref. 97: Bild 16 in "Deutsche Funkmeßtechnik 1944: ein Vortrag von Leo Brandt, gehalten am 8. Februar 1944, zur Einführung der Zentimeter-Technik für das Funkmeßgebiet", Leo Brandt, Vol. 7 of "Bücherei der Funkortung", Sonderheft [special issue], Verkehrs- und Wirtschafts-Verlag, 1956, 29 pp.
  • Ref. 98: "Organisation des systèmes de radionavigation de la Luftwaffe en Normandie en 1944" [The Organization of the Radio-Navigation Systems of the Luftwaffe in Normandy in 1944], Jean-François Salles, in "Revue historique des armées", No. 198, March 1995, pp. 77-88
  • Ref. 99 "Völlig in Vergessenheit geraten: Funkanlage bei Buke", Hans-Walter Wichert, in "Die Warte - Heimatzeitschrift für die Kreise Paderborn und Höxter", Nr. 24, December 1979, pp. 14-15, ISSN 0939-8686 (courtesy Mr. R. Gellhaus and H.-W. Wichert)
  • Ref. 100: pp. 12-13 in "Interpretation of Wireless Installations", Vol. VII of "Development of Photographic Intelligence", Directorate of Intelligence, US Air Force Headquarters, Washington D.C., 1945
  • Ref. 101: manuscript notes of Fritz Trenkle for "Verzeichnis deutscher Bordfunkgeräte aller Art (einschl. der mit FuG-Nr. belegten akustischen und UR-Geräte) 1935-1945" and "Entwurf zu Funkgeräte Katalog Deutschland 1908-1918 und 1919-1945"
  • Ref. 102: p. 695 in "Aidlingen, Lehenweiler, Dachtel und Deufringen: Beiträge zur Ortsgeschichte", D. Ade-Rademacher (ed.), Gemeinde Aidlingen (publ.), January 1999, 848 pp., ISBN-10: 300004521X, ISBN-13: 9783000045219
  • Ref. 103: "Aidlingen Venusberg", web-page of Forschungsgruppe Untertage e.V. [pdf] Also part of "Pressebericht Tageswanderung zum Venusberg", Reiner Schopf, p. 28 in "Stadt Holzerlingen Nachrichtenblatt", 1 August 2014.
  • Ref. 104: "Vom Stadtboten zur Informationsgesellschaft: Post- und Kommunikationsgeschichte in Paderborn und Ostwestfalen-Lippe", Norbert Börste (Publ.), Schriftenreihe des Fördervereins des Historischen Museums im Marshall von Paderborn, 2002, 271 pp., ISBN 3897102366
  • Ref. 105: "Bernhard"-thread in the forum of geschichtsspuren.de, 2003-2013 [pdf]
  • Ref. 106: "La Station de Radioguidage B8 sur le Mont Saint Michel de Braspart (Bretagne - FR)", G. Tomezzoli, Ph. Dupont (used with permission of the author).
  • Ref. 106A: An abridged version was published in German as "Die Drehfunkfeueranlage Bernhard auf dem Mont St. Michel de Braspart (F)", G. Tomezzoli, Ph. Dupont, in "DAWA (Deutsches Atlantikwall Archiv) Nachrichten", Nr. 57, 1 Feb. 2011.  See note 1
  • Ref. 107: p. 48 in "Bodenfunkmessgeräte der deutschen Luftwaffe bis 1945", Werner Müller, Band 132 of the series "Waffen-Arsenal - Waffen und Fahrzeuge der Heere und Luftstreitkräfte", Podzun-Pallas-Verlag, 1992, 50 pp.  See note 1
  • Ref. 108: "Quatre ans d'occupation pour la vigie du Val-de-Saire : 1940-1944 : La Pernelle, H.K.A.A. 1261, 9 et 10", Yannick Rose, Alençon A.C.R.E.D.I.C. Publ., 2nd. ed., 1990, 68 pp.
  • Ref. 109: "British Army Photographic Intelligence Section (APIS) - Photographic intelligence for operation 'Overlord'" (the invasion of France) - La Pernelle:
  • Ref. 109A: Imperial War Museums (IWM) catalogue number MH 24808: "Low oblique of a 17 cm heavy gun in a hedgerow near la Pernelle. This photograph, taken during a reconnaissance sortie over the 'Bernhard' radio navigational station, led to the discovery of a camouflaged battery at the site"
  • Ref. 109B: Imperial War Museums (IWM) catalogue number MH 24809: "The gun battery at la Pernelle after air and naval bombardment. The 'Bernhard' antenna of the adjacent radio navigational station can be seen at the road junction, top left."
  • Ref. 109C: Imperial War Museums (IWM) catalogue number MH 24856: "Oblique aerial of the radio navigational station at la Pernelle under air bombardment. The 'Bernhard' antenna can be seen middle right, and in the right foreground is the destroyed gun battery"
  • Ref. 110: to be allocated.
  • Ref. 111: "La vierge célébrée à la Butte", in "L'Union Ardennais" (newspaper), 21 August 2008
  • Ref. 112: "To vigtige punkter på egnen" ["Two important points in the area"], Morten Binderup, pp. 125-128 in "Historisk Årbog for Thy og Vester Hanherred", 1992 (1992 Historical Yearbook of Thy and West Hanherred)  [pdf]
  • Ref. 113: "Le CSTEI : du radar allemand au satellite…", Centre spécialisé des télécommunications et de l’informatique (CSTEI) de Favières, Dossier de presse M3 Favières, Délégation à l’Information et à la Communication de la Défense (DICoD), 2006, 4 pp.
  • Ref. 114: page 37 in "Denkmalschutz und Fremdenverkehr", M. Klawitter, pp. 36-37 in "Die Warte - Heimatzeitschrift für die Kreise Paderborn und Höxter". Nr. 23, November 1979, ISSN 0939-8686
  • Ref. 115: Drawing of the cross-section of the Bernhard at Hundborg/Gåsebjerg hill, Jens Salmonson, 1982, source: Hundborg Lokalhistoriske Arkiv, used with permission.
  • Ref. 116: personal mail exchanges with L. Sourisseau about eyewitness account, 14-24 October 2013.
  • Ref. 117: "Gefährliches Funkfeuer auf dem Venusberg", M. Weigert, in "Kreiszeitung Böblinger Bote", 8 Sept 2009
  • Ref. 118: plate 15 in "Most Secret War", R.V. Jones, Hamish Hamilton, 1978, 576 pp.  See note 1
  • Ref. 119: "1939, Husum wieder Soldatenstadt", Jürgen Dietrich, 8 pp. in "300 Jahre Garnisonsstadt Husum - 50 Jahre Bundeswehrstandort", H. Hünken, H. Sehnert (eds.), 2006, 73 pp.  [pdf]
  • Ref. 120: personal correspondence with R. Grzywatz, February 2014.
  • Ref. 127: "Vliegveld Bergen NH 1938-1940", J.H. Schuurman, A.W. de Poel (ed.), Uitgeverij De Coogh, 2001, 336 pp., ISBN 9075440049
  • Ref. 128: personal correspondence with Y. Rose, December 2013 - April 2014
  • Ref. 129: "Trzebnica *Raszów*", source: RadioPolska website
  • Ref. 130: 1944 map of "Luftnachrichten-Stellungen" [Signal Corps sites]
  • Ref. 131: "Exkursion zu Abwehranlage der Luftwaffe", in "Kreiszeitung Böblinger Bote", 31 July 2014 [pdf]
  • Ref. 132:
  • Ref. 132A: "Luftverteidigungszone West" page of Forschungsgruppe Untertage e.V.  [pdf]
  • Ref. 132B: "Fliegerhorste - und Einsatzhäfen der Luftwaffe"
  • Ref. 132C: "Luftwaffe Airfields 1935-1945", Henry L. deZeng   [pdf]
  • Ref. 132D: Brief biography of Lieutenant General Karl Kitzinger, Landeskunde entdecken online Baden-Württemberg (LEO-BW), Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg  [pdf]
  • Ref. 132E: "UK airfield listing" (RAF and USAF)
  • Ref. 132F: "Flugplätze der Luftwaffe 1934 - 1945 und was davon übrig blieb - Gesamtverzeichnis", Jürgen Zapf, 2010, 568 pp.
  • Ref. 132G: "Luftwaffe night fighter control methods", Michaël Svejgaard, accessed 1 June 2020.  [pdf of web page snapshot;  actual web page is subject to change]
  • Ref. 132H: Airfields of Britain Conservation Trust
  • Ref. 133: "Skoda Works, Pilsen, Czecho-Slovakia", British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee (BIOS), Final Report No. 43, Item No. 2, 1945, 12 pp.; source: www.cdvandt.org
  • Ref. 134: p. 136 in "American Raiders: The Race to Capture the Luftwaffe's Secrets", Wolfgang W. E. Samuel, University Press of Mississippi, 2004, 513 pp.
  • Ref. 135: "Bernard bij Schoorl", trip report on www.forten.info.nl by Marco Spijker, 2006 [pdf]
  • Ref. 165:
  • Ref. 165A:"Deckname "Selma" & "Bernhard""; source: website "Geheimes & Unbekanntes Österreich", 2014. Note: website no longer exists (last checked 2018).
  • Ref. 165B:"Deckname "Selma" – UKW-Peiler "Bernhard" - Sonnenberg/Hornstein", Markus Schmitzberger, 2000. [pdf]. Accessed: March 2019. Also published here; Accessed March 2019.
  • Ref. 165C:"Deckname "Selma" - Funkmessstellung Sonnenberg", Markus Schmitzberger, 2000. [pdf]. Accessed: March 2019.
  • Ref. 165D: "SELMA, Jägerleitstelle" [pdf], context information description for file ref. AT-OeStA/KA NL 2359(B), Österreichisches Staatsarchiv [Austrian National Archives], public domain. Accessed 26 April 2019.
  • Ref. 172: copy of item in file AIR 29/284 "Central Interpretation Unit (CIU) Medmenham; Interpretation reports and aerial photos (1943)". Item is in the collection of The National Archives; material with UK Crown Copyright, used in accordance with the Open Government License [pdf].
  • Summary of the contents of ref. 172A.
  • Ref. 172A: "German “Windjammer” R.D.F. Stations", part of "Monthly interpretation review for July 1943", 7 pp.
  • Ref. 173: copy of items in file AIR 14/3577 "Signals investigation on 27 to 35 Mc/s "Windjammer" (1943/1944)". Items are in the collection of The National Archives; material with UK Crown Copyright, used in accordance with the Open Government License [pdf].
  • Summary of the contents of ref. 173A-173E.
  • Ref. 173A: "'Windjammer" observation", by R.A. Fareday (Noise Investigation Bureau [Electronic Intelligence], N.I.B., London), dated 20th June 1944, 1 page.
  • Ref. 173B: ""Possible "Windjammer" transmissions", report by Flight Lieutenant Douglas of 192 Sq., dated 16th December 1943, 1 page.
  • Ref. 173C: "192 Squadron Flight report No. 215/43" by F/Lt Robinson to Squadron Leader Burtler, dated 15th November 1943 (actual report by P/O G.F. Evans of 13th November 1943), 6 pages.
  • Ref. 173D: "Windjammer – Arcachon", letter from Air Ministry A.I.4. [intelligence branch section supervising RAF Y Service] to Commanding Officer of 192 Squadron, dated 16th July 1943, 1 page + 1 aerial photo.
  • Ref. 173E: "The Windjammer and Dreh-Elektra", by 192 Squadron Leader J. Whitehead, dated 18th June 1943, 1 page.
  • Ref. 174: copy of items in file AIR 14/3594 ""Windjammer" station: photographs and interpretation reports. Includes vertical and low oblique aerial photographs of 'Windjammer' radar sites in Germany and France (1943/1944)". Items are in the collection of The National Archives; material with UK Crown Copyright, used in accordance with the Open Government License [pdf].
  • Summary of the contents of ref. 174A-174J.
  • Ref. 174A: Letter entitled "W/T Bergen/Belvedere" by Squadron Leader C.W. Swanell on behalf of the Group Captain commanding R.A.F. Station Medmenham to R.V. Jones (A.D.I. Science), dated 9th April 1943, 1 page + 1 photo
  • Ref. 174B: Aerial photo of station "Bergen/Belvedere" [The Netherlands], photo No. 3022, taken 22rd March 1943 by 541 Squadron
  • Ref. 174C: Letter entitled "W/T – Bergen/Belvedere" by Group Captain commanding R.A.F. Station Medmenham to R.V. Jones (A.D.I. Science), dated 9th April 1943, 1 page. (note: photos referenced in letter not on file)
  • Ref. 174D: Letter entitled "W/T Desvres/Le Bois Julien" on behalf of Group Captain commanding R.A.F. Station Medmenham to R.V. Jones (A.D.I. Science), dated 15th November 1942, 1 page + 2 photos.
  • Ref. 174E: Letter entitled "W/T: Desvres/Le Bois Julien" on behalf of Group Captain commanding R.A.F. Station Medmenham to R.V. Jones (A.D.I. Science), dated 29th March 1943, 1 page + 1 photo.
  • Ref. 174F: "Interpretation Report No. G. 308" dated 28th June 1942, of aerial photos taken over Desvres/Le-Bois-Julien at altitude of 20k ft during Sortie A/945 on 20th June 1942, 1 page + 1 photo.
  • Ref. 174G: "Interpretation report No. G.590" dated 6th October 1942, of aerial photo taken over locality Morlaix, W/T station Mt. St. Michel, at altitude of 12k ft during Sortie Q/21 on 24th September 1942, 2 pages + 1 photo.
  • Ref. 174H: Letter entitled "W/T: Pouzauges/St.Michel-Mont-Mercure" on behalf of Group Captain commanding R.A.F. Station Medmenham to Squadron Leader Whitehead (A.I.4), dated 29th March 1943, 1 page + 3 photos.
  • Ref. 174J: Photos No. 4065 and 4066 of station at St. Vaast / La Pernelle, taken 31st March 1943 from off shore. [station is fully, though vaguely, visible on horizon]
  • Ref. 176: post-war correspondence [in German] between Mr. Kurt Pfaender (frmr. Telefunken employee) and Telefunken, as well as Telefunken-internal, regarding past wages (back pay) and reimbursement of expenses incurred by Mr. Pfaender for transportation of Telefunken equipment from Trebbin to a site near Hannover, during February & March of 1945; source: corporate archives of DTM Berlin, part of file nr. I.2.060C-00499:
  • Ref. 176A: Letter from Mr. Kurt Pfaender to the HR office of Telefunken in Berlin, with claims; dated 15 November 1950, 1 p.
  • Ref. 176B: Letter from Mr. Albrecht Leyn (Telefunken/Hannover) to Mr. Gothe (Telefunken/Berlin), recollecting payments of bills & sale of items to Mr. Pfaender; dated 18 September 1951, 2 pp.
  • Ref. 176C: Telefunken memo about conversation with Mr. Pfaender on 20 December 1951, regarding claims of the latter; dated 27 December 1951, 1 p.
  • Ref. 176D: Letter from Kurt Pfaender to Telefunken in Berlin, describing the course of events; dated 12 January 1952, 2 pp.
  • Ref. 177: post-war letters [in German] from the company "Hein, Lehmann & Co. Eisenkonstruktionen, Brücken- und Signalbau K.-G." in Berlin-Tempelhof to Telefunken in Berlin, with claims ("Altforderungen") regarding delivery and installation of various types of antenna systems (arrays, tube & lattice masts, wooden masts, metal-clad wooden huts, verticals, dishes, turntables, for "Bernhard", "Marius", "Marius II", "Uran II", "Forsthaus-KF", etc.), installations in Germany, Hungary, Monte Carlo, Croatia, etc., during the period of July 1942 through the end of the war (8 May 1945); source: corporate archives of DTM Berlin, file nr. I.2.060C-00541:
  • Ref. 177A: Letter from Hein, Lehmann & Co. to Telefunken with payment status of 17 Telefunken purchase orders and the resulting outstanding significant claim; dated 19 June 1949, 2 pp.
  • Ref. 177B: Letter from Hein, Lehmann & Co. to Telefunken with adjusted claims, based on assessment of Telefunken counter-claims; dated 19 June 1950, 8 pp.
  • Ref. 177C: Letter from Hein, Lehmann & Co. to Telefunken, with further justification for claims regarding delivery & installation of 12 "Bernhard" antenna systems (against purchase order of July 1941) for Be-2 - Be-8 and Be-12, of 6 associated "Dioden-Masten" antenna masts (based on price quote of September 1941), and delivery (without installation) of the antenna systems of Be-1 and Be-9 - Be-11; dated 5 February 1951, 3 pp.
  • Ref. 178: Reichsmark vs. US Dollar and Euro exchange and equivalency data:
  • Ref. 178A: "Deutsche Bundesbank - Average Currency Exchange Rates 1908-1951 Mark / Reichsmark / Deutsche Mark (M/RM/DM) vs. France FRF / Austria K, S / USA $ / UK £ / Netherlands HFL", Vs 801, 12 pp. [pdf]
  • Ref. 178B: source of US dollar inflation (CPI, buying power) calculator: www.usinflationcalculator.com.
  • Ref. 178C: Tabulated exchange rate of Reichsmark to US$, with conversion to 2016 US$ and Euro, Frank Dörenberg, 21 May 2017; based on ref. 178A/B.
  • Ref. 179: "Votragsnotiz", draft presenter notes addressed to the General-Nachrichtenführer (Gen-Nafü), 3 September 1944, 3 pp.
  • Covers original plans for geographic coverage (France, German Reich) with Bernhard stations, state of completion of the various Be-stations, status of introduction of the Bernhard/Bernhardine method for night-fighters (Nachtjagd).
  • Source: Bundesarchiv (BArch) Freiburg/Germany (Signatur) file nr. RL 2-V/6, used in accordance with "Erstinformation für Ihren Besuch im Bundesarchiv in Freiburg, Stand Juni 2016"
  • Ref. 180: Layout of the Bernhard installation in Trebbin, based on a sketch from an eyewitness (name and date unknown); source: corporate archives of DTM Berlin, file nr. I.2.060C-07823.
  • Ref. 181: "Drehfunkfeuer System Telefunken - Teil 1: Verfahrensbeschreibung EC1-4262" [Telefunken rotating radio beacon, part 1: description of the method], Adalbert Lohmann, Berlin, October 1942, 129 pp., copy nr. 29, personal copy of Albrecht Leyn [note: this document was never printed, other than a very limited number of personal copies, individually approved by Dept. LC-4 (Technisches Amt) of the RLM; ref. 183]; source: corporate archives of DTM Berlin, part of file nr. I.2.060C-06172  [file size: 62 MB]
  • Ref. 182: Photo of Mr. Albrecht Leyn and a Luftwaffe Lance Corporal (with SA sports badge), possibly from a FLAK unit, taken in 1942 on the Telefunken test site near Trebbin; source: corporate archives of DTM Berlin, part of file nr. I.2.060C-06172.
  • Ref. 183: "Das Drehfunkfeuer-Verfahren Bernhard und Bernhardine, System Telefunken" ["Verfahrensbeschreibung Bernhard, Bernhardine", description of the Bernhard-Bernhardine method], Adalbert Lohmann, Telefunken Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie m.b.H., Berlin-Zehlendorf, Telefunken document EC 1 4310, July 1943, 28 pp., copy nr. 11; source: corporate archives of DTM Berlin, file nr. I.2.060C-04403.
  • Ref. 189: "Stückliste zum Kabelplan "Berhard"" [parts list of "Bernhard" wiring diagram], Telefunken document EC1-4237, 6 July 1942, 23 pp.; source: corporate archives of DTM Berlin, part of file nr. I.2.060C-07553.
  • Ref. 206: Map dated 2 October 1942 in the Kriegstagebuch [KTB, war journal) of the 320th Infantry Division and a 1944 Kriegsmarine KTB.
  • Ref. 210: Maps (charts) with Luftnachrichten Anlagen (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations) from the Bundesarchiv (BArch) Freiburg/Germany, used in accordance with "Erstinformation für Ihren Besuch im Bundesarchiv in Freiburg, Stand Juni 2016". Note: at the Archive, only free-hand photography is allowed (no tripod, etc.), under sub-obtimal lighting conditions. Also, most of the maps are large, are folded into A4-size (ca. 21x30 cm, ≈8x12 inch), and are not flat when unfolded...
  • Ref. 210A: "Funk-Navigationsanlagen im Reichsgebiet" (radio-navigation stations in the Reich), Oberkommando der Luftwaffe [OKL] - Generalnachrichtenführer 1- II. Map is dated 15 June 1944. [file size: 65 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here 12 MB],
  • Bernhard stations Be-0, Be-9, B-10, Be-11, and Be-12 are marked on this map. Map size 4x5 A4-size panels.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8 "Ln. Anlagen (Karten)", Bandnr. 2, Teil 2 of "Anlage B, Teil 2: Ln. Anlagen verschiedener Art, Juni - Aug. 1944"
  • Ref. 210B: "Bernhard"-Anlagen im Reichsgebiet" (radio-navigation stations in the Reich), OKL - Generalnachrichtenführer Abt. 1/ II. Map is dated 1 July 1944.  [file size: 24 MB]
  • Bernhard stations Be-0, Be-6, Be-8 through Be-12, and Be-14 through Be-16 are marked on this map. Map size 5x2½ A4-size panels.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210C: "Ln.-Anlagen Westfront" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations on the western front). Map is dated 30 August 1944. [file size: 22 MB].
  • Bernhard station Be-6 is marked on this map. Map size 4x3 A4-size panels.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210D: "Funk-Navigationsanlagen Ost-Raum" (radio-navigation installations, eastern area), OKL Generalnachrichtenführer 1. Abt.II. Map is dated 15 June 1944. [file size: 44 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 26 MB]
  • Map is marked with locations of Sonne, Komet, Zyklop, Egon, and Truhe stations. Map size 5x5 A4-size panels.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210E: "Funk-Navigationsanlagen Westraum" (radio-navigation installations, western area), OKL - Generalnachrichtenführer 1. Abt. II. Map is dated 15 June 1944. [file size: 83 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 10 MB].
  • Bernhard stations Be-2, Be-6, Be-8, and Be-10 are marked on this map. Map is marked with locations of Sonne, Knickebein, Komet, Zyklop, Bernhard, Truhe, Erika, Y-(Kampf), Egon (Kampf), Baldur, Peildörfer, Flugsicherungshaupstellen, and Flugsichsrungszentralen.
  • Map size 6x5 A4-sheets (WxH). Map scale is 1:2000000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210F: "Funknavigationsanlagen" (radio-navigation installations), OKL - Generalnachrichtenführer 1. Abt.II Map is dated 1 October 1944. [file size: 107 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 13 MB].
  • Map covers Europe, from mid-Scandinavia down to mid-Italy. Map is marked with locations of Sonne, Zyklop, Egon, Truhe, Bernhard, Y-Kampf, Hermine, Knickebein, Komet, Erika, Flugsicherungs-Zentralen, Flugsicherungshauptstellen. Map size 7x4 A4-sheets (WxH). Map scale 1:200000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13.
  • Ref. 210G: "Flughafen-Bereichskommando (Koflug) 10/XII". Map is not dated.
  • Koflug 10/XII moved to Morlaix/Bretagne in July of 1940; it was dissolved in October of 1944.
  • Bernhard station Be-2 is marked on this map. Map is marked up with Korps- & Divisions-boundaries, Ln.-Anlagen, Flugwachen, Fliegerhorste, Unterstellungen, Armeekorps LXXIV & XXV; map scale 1:500000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 20/310.
  • Ref. 210H: "Kommando des Flughafenbereiches 8/XII (Morlaix)" (Kdo FHB 8-XII). Map is dated 6 July 1944. [file size: 91 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 31 MB].
  • Bernhard station Be-2 is marked on this map. Map covers the western half of Brittany (Bretagne). Map is marked with boundaries at Ln. Korps & Division level; Map scale 1:200000.
  • The original large single-sheet map (ca. 120x105 cm overall size) was divided into 4x5 separate map panels of ca. A4 size, that were glued onto a large sheet of thin gray canvas, and folded.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 20/310.
  • Ref. 210J: Map of FuMG Stellungen in Litauen [Luftwaffe radar sites in Lithuania], Oberkommando der Luftwaffe - Generalnachrichtenführer (O.K.L. Gen.Nafü), 1. Abt. (III). Map is dated 21 July 1944.
  • Flugwachkommandos, Flugmeldezentralen, Luftflottengrenzen also marked on the map. Map scale 1:2500000, Zchs.Nr. 44/46.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/6.
  • Ref. 210K: Map "Ln. Anlagen im Raume Rumänien" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations in Rumania]). Map is dated 25 August 1944. [file size: 25 MB].
  • Map is marked with locations of FuMG, Funknav. Anlagen, LVerm., Jägerleistellungen. Map size 5x2 A4-sheets (WxH).
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210L: Map "Ln. Anlagen im Raume Bulgarien" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations in Bulgaria). Map is dated 25 August 1944. [file size: 21 MB]
  • Map is marked with locations of FuMG, Funknav. Anlagen, LVerm., Flugsicherungshaupstellen, Jägerleistellungen. Also, 1 map panel has listing of Luftnachrichtentruppe units present in Bulgaria at that time. Map size 5x2 A4-sheets (WxH).
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210M: "Ln.-Anlagen im Raume Finnland - Übersichtskarte von Nord-Finnland" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations in Finland). [file size: 34 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 4 MB]. Map is dated 14 October 1944.
  • Map is marked with locations of FuMG, Funknav. Anlagen Sonne, Kzw-Adcock, Luftparke, FMZ, S.u.J.-Stellen, Frontrep. Betriebe, LVerm., Flugsicherungshaupstellen, and Jägerdienste. Map markings include dates of explosive destruction or disassembly ("Sprengung", "Abbau"). Map size 3x2½ A4-sheets (WxH).
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13/K5.
  • Ref. 210N: "Untitled map of northernmost Scandinavia". Map is not dated.
  • Map is marked with location of "Sonne" beacons S-20 at Andö and S-17 at Svanvik, Flugsicherungszentralen "Lofoten", "Polarmeer", nr. 11 at Kemi/Finland. Map scale 1:4000000. Map size 2x1 A4-sheets (WxH).
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13.
  • Ref. 210P: "Ln.-Anlagen Baltikum" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations in the Baltic area). Map is dated 18 September 1944. [file size: 24 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 3 MB].
  • Map is marked with locations of FuM, LV, and RV-Netz. Map size 2x2 A4-sheets (WxH).
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13/K3.
  • Ref. 210Q: "Ln. Anlagen im Raume Griechenland" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations in Greece). Map is dated 30 August 1944 - 5 November 1944 [file size: 26 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 4 MB].
  • Map is marked with locations of FuMG, Flugsicherungszentralen, L. Verm., Luftparke, Ln. Gast., Frontrep. Betr., Rep. & Sammelstellen f. Bordfunk Geräte. Map size 4x2 (WxH) A4-sheets.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13.
  • Ref. 210R: Map "Drahtlage Ost" (wired communication links, eastern area). Map is not dated. [file size: 21 MB].
  • Map is marked with line types (DK, Zuspannung, Heereslinie, Fernkabel, I-Kabel, LF-Kabel), LV, Schaltstellen. Scale 1:2500000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210S: "I. Flugsicherungsbezirke" (air traffic control districts), OKL. Gen.-Nafü, 1. Abt. II. Map is dated 1 October 1944. [file size: 91 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is is here, 11 MB].
  • Colored map covers area of the southern half of Scandinavia through Greece. A seperate smal map of entire Scandinavia is attached to the back of the map (included). Map is marked with locations of Flugsicherungszentralen, Flugsicherungshauptstellen. Map scale 1:200000. Map size 5x4 (WxH) A4-sheets.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13.
  • Ref. 210T: "I. Flugsicherungsbezirke" (air traffic control districts). Map is dated 1 October 1944. [file size: 17 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 2 MB].
  • Black & white map covers area of the southern half of Scandinavia through Greece. Map is marked with locations of Flugsicherungs-Hauptstellen and Flugsicherungszentralen. Map size: 3x2 (WxH) A4-sheets.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13.
  • Ref. 210U: "Wassermann-Einsatz und -Planung" (operational and planned Wasserman sites), Zeichgs-Nr. 44/18-1-A, GKdos, OKL. Gen.-Nafü, 1. Abt. III. Map is dated 20 June 1944. [file size: 76 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 8 MB].
  • Map covers area of northern Britain to northwestern Egypt. Map is marked with locations of Wassermann (L/M/S; operational/under construction/planned by Luftflotten, proposed by O.K.L. Gen.Nafü.), Fu.MG (nachtjagdfähig), Jagdschloß, Mammut, Freya (+ An , + An & Kuh, + Kuh & Gemse, + Fahrstuhl), Würzburg (A-D, Riese, Riese + Gema Zusatz).
  • Map size: 6x5 (WxH) A4-sheets. Map scale 1:2500000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/9.
  • Ref. 210V: "Jägermeßstellungen" (radar sites for fighter intercept guidance), Zeichgs-Nr. 44/17-2-A, GKdos, OKL. Gen.-Nafü, 1. Abt. III. Map is dated 20 June 1944. [file size: 61 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 25 MB]. Note: this map was rather poorly folded (6x5 layers) and not flat at all, which made it hard to stitch the indiviudal partial images back together.
  • Map covers area of northern Britain to northwestern Egypt. Map is marked with locations of Egon (Gerät, Gerät + AN, Gerät + A/K), Y-Stellung, Y-Gerät (operational, under construction, planned), Tagjadgenauigkeit, Nachtjagdgenauigkeit, and also boundaries of Zusatzzahlgebiete, Jagdtrapezbegrenzung.
  • Map size: 6x5 (WxH) A4-sheets. Map scale 1:2500000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/9.
  • Ref. 210W: "Flugmeldeeinsatz- und Organisationsplanung", Zeichgs-Nr. 44/20-1-A, GKdos, OKL. Gen.-Nafü, 1. Abt. III. Map is dated 20 June 1944. [file size: 63 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 26 MB]. Note: this map has the same background map as ref. 210V, but with some different mark-ups.
  • Map covers area of northern Britain to northwestern Egypt. Map is marked with locations of Wassermann (L/M/S), Fu.MG (nachtjagdfähig), Mammut, Freya (+ An , + An & Gemse, + An & Kuh, + Kuh & Gemse, + Fahrstuhl), Würzburg (A-D, Riese, Riese + Gema Zusatz), and also boundaries of Zusatzzahlgebiete, Jagdtrapezbegrenzung.
  • Map size: 6x5 (WxH) A4-sheets. Map scale 1:2500000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/9.
  • Ref. 210X: "Ln-Gerätestellungen im Landekopfraum" [Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations/sites]. Map is dated 24-June-1944.
  • Map is centered on Allied invasion beachheads in Normandie. Map is marked with location of LV, Fu.M.B., H-Peiler, Fu.M.G. Fu.Nav. (Y, Kn, E, Be), H.-Zug, Jägermeßstellungen, and s. & l. Funkfeuer sites. "Bernhard" stations Be-1 (Favières) and Be-4 (La Pernelle) are marked on this map.
  • Map size: ca. 4x3½ (WxH) A4-sheets. Map scale 1:500000.
  • Cover letter for the above map. Letter without subject, dated 24 June 1944, addressed to Chef Luftwaffe Führungsstab. Letter reference "Gen.Nafü. 1. Abt (I), Nr. 11 004/44 g. Kdos". Letter mentions scuttling/destruction of installations, transfer of forces from the Cotentin peninsula to Cherbourg, and numbers of German forces killed or taken prisoner.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/5.
  • Ref. 210Y: "Ln.-Anlagen im Bereich der Ostfront" [Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations on the eastern front]. Map is dated 9 February 1945.  [file size: 103 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 21 MB].
  • Map covers area from Denmark to Hungary. Map is marked with locations of Fu.MG (1. Ordnung, Eisenbahn, mot.), Funknav.-Anlagen (Egon, Zyklop, Sonne,Truhe), LVermittlung, Jägerleitstellungen, and Flugsicherungszentralen (Nachtjagd) sites. Map markings include "Bernhard" stations Be-0, Be-12, and Be-15.
  • Map size: ca. 6x3½ (WxH) A4-sheets. Map scale is not marked.
  • On the back of the map's legend panel, the map title is repeated, but changed by hand to "Ln.-Anlagen im Bereich der Front" and "Bereich Reichsgebiet 9.2.45".
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL-2-V-19.
  • Ref. 210Z: "Flugsicherungseinheiten mit Nebenkarte Norwegen". Map is dated 1-Jan-1945, Gen.-Nafü 1/II.  [file size: 61 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 11 MB].
  • Map covers area from Scandinavia to Romania. Map is marked with location of Flugsicherungshauptstellen, abgesetzte UKW Arbeitsplätze, Flugsicherungszentralen (Fluz), and Rgt. / Abt. / Komp. sites.
  • Map size: ca. 4x3½ (WxH) A4-sheets. Map scale is 1:2000000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL-2-V-19
  • Ref. 210AA: "Flugsicherungszentralen Flugsicherungs-Hauptstellen", map covers area from The Netherlands to Hungary. Map is dated 1-January-1945, Gen.-Nafü 1/II.
  • Map is marked with location of Flugsicherungszentralen (Fluz; Kampf & Nachtjagd), Flugsicherungs-Haupstellen, abgesetzte UKW-Arbeitsplätze.
  • Map size: ca. 4x2 (WxH) A4-sheets. Map scale 1:2000000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL-2-V-19.
  • Ref. 210AB: "Drehkreuzachsen im Reichsgebiet". Map is dated 1-March-1945 with update on 22-March-1945, Gen.-Nafü.  [file size: 88 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 26 MB].
  • Map covers area from Denmark to Hungary. Map is marked with location of "Drehkreuzachsen" lines (permanent phone lines, with wire-pairs twisted between masts), LV, LSZ, Jägermeßstellungen, Schaltstellen, TF-Verstärker.
  • Map size: ca. 5x3½ (WxH) A4-sheets. Map scale 1:1000000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL-2-V-19.
  • Ref. 210AC: "Gesamt-Drahtlage" [Complete com wire/cable map]. Map is dated 1-January-1945. [file size: 41 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 23 MB].
  • Map covers area from Denmark to Hungary. Map is marked with location of Drehkreuzachsen, Heereslinien, Fernkabel, Breitbandkabel, U-Kabel, LF-Kabel, LV, Schaltstellen, LSZ, Verstärkerämter, Betriebsstellen.
  • Map size: ca. 4x2 (WxH) A4-sheets. Map scale 1:2000000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL-2-V-19.
  • Ref. 210AD: "Begriffsbestimmungen" [definitions/terminology], Anlage (appendix) to "Der Reichsmarschall d. Großdeutschen Reiches und Oberbefehlshaber der Luftwaffe Lw.Fü.St./Chef NVW Nr. 10 222/44 g.Kdos.(l/I) vom 28.2.44". Dated 28 february 1944. Page 6 missing from file.
  • Brief definition/clarifaction of the terms "Flugmeldedienst", "Flugwache" (Vollflugwache / Tagflugwache / Behelfsflugwache), "Fu.M.G.Stellung" (1. Ordung, 2. Ordnung, 3.Ordnung), Flugmeldezentrale (Stellungs-, Abschnitts-, Divisions-, Korps-, Flotten-), "Flugmelde-Bereiche" (Stellungs, - Abschnitts- (Flugmeldeabschnitt), Divisions-), "Einheiten des Flugmeldedienstes" (-Kompanie, -Abteilung-, -Regiment), "Flugmeldeauswertestelle eines Fliegerhorstes", "Florian-Netz", "Reportageverfahren", "Jägermeßdienst", "Jägermeßstellung", "Warnwache", "L.S.Warnkommando (L.S.Wako)", "L.S.Warnzentrale", "Eisenbahnwarnzentrale (Eflu-Wz.)", "Flugmeldposten der Flakartillerie".
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL-2-V-5.
  • Ref. 210AE: "Taktische Zeichen für die Neuorganization des Flugmeldedienstes, Eintragung der Geräteausstattung der Fu.M.G.-Stellung, Darstellung des Ausbauzustandes, Taktische Zeichen für die Neuorganization des Jägerleitdienstes" [map & org-chart symbology for the Luftwaffe Aircraft Reporting Service, standard equipment configuratins for radar sites, map & org-chart symbology for the reorganized Fighter Guidance Service], 1944, 6 pp.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL-2-V-5.
  • Ref. 216: pp. 22-23 in "Chronik der alten Guts-Schmiede", Förderverein Alte Guts-Schmiede Blankensee e.V., V3, February 2012, 31 pp.
  • Ref. 218: "Der Längstwellensender Goliath bei Kalbe (Milde)", Klaus Herold, pp. 169-190 in "100 Jahre Funktechnik in Deutschland: Funksendestellen rund um Berlin", Wolfgang Behnke, Vol. 1 of "100 Jahre Funktechnik in Deutschland", Wissenschaft-und-Technik Verlag, 3rd ed. 2004, 342 pp., ISBN: 3-936124-65-5 See note 1
  • Ref. 219: Map of Luftwaffen- and Marine-Stellungen, dated 2-Oct-1942, in the Kriegstagebuch (war journal) of the 320th Infantry Division.
  • Ref. 220: p. 266 in the "Germany" section of "Radio Amateur Call Book Magazine", Spring 1935.
  • Ref. 222: "Coordinates of location of “Bernhard” FuSAn 724/725 radio navigation stations", Frank Dörenberg, update of 23 March 2018
  • Ref. 223: "PSU and generator for Berhardine Hundberg Denmark", US National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Scan Nr. 9821 111SC 269041; courtesy Mike Dean.
  • Ref. 225: p. 84 in "Luftkrig over Danmark. Bind 3, Jagerkontrol 1943-1945 : Karup 1940-1945" [Air War over Denmark, vol. 3 of 5], Carsten Petersen, Bollerup Boghandel (publ.), 1950 (first edition; reprinted 1988), 96 pp, ISBN 8789155025.
  • Ref. 226: "31.04 Fernfunkfeuer Bernhard 10 - Hundborg" page of Hanstholmregistreringen; accessed 21-Oct-2018 [pdf]
  • Ref. 226A: personal account by Jørn Junker, date unknown.
  • Ref. 226B: "REGISTRERING THISTED AMT 2.", description of areas outside Hanstholm, survey performed in 1945 by the 3rd Building District of the Army Building Service, Drawn in December 1945 based on optical measurement, by Poul Boe, Land Inspector.
  • Ref. 227: "The Calibration Mast of WWII German W/T Station Be-2" [pdf], G.T. Tomezzoli, Archaeological Discovery (e-zine), Vol. 7, No. 2, April 2019, pp. 75-83, article. no. 91561. Accessed: 2 April 2019.
  • Ref. 228G: pp. 200-204 in "Rotating beacons", Section 4.12 of "Radio Aids to Civil Navigation", Reginald Frederick Hansford (ed.), Heywood & Co. Ltd. (publ.), 1960, 623 pp.
  • Ref. 231: "Flugwache Turm auf dem Stollberg / Bredstedt", R. Grzywatz, 22 April 2019, 1 p.
  • Ref. 232: "Aidlingen, Germany" [1:25,000 scale map; full size jpg image (16 MB)], US Army Map Services (AMS), 3rd ed., 1954 AMS Series M841 (GSGS 4414), Sheet 7319, Map File G6080 s25 G.4; copied from 1937 map of Statistisches Landesamt in Germany, original German gridlines replaced by AMS in 1952. Accessed 26 April 2019.
  • Ref. 233: airfields in The Netherlands during WW2
  • Ref. 233A: "Vliegvelden in oorlogstijd. Nederlandse vliegvelden tijdens bezetting en bevrijding 1940 – 1945" ["Dutch airfields during the occupation and liberation 1940-1945"], Erwin van Loo, Rolf de Winter, Peter Grimm, Boom (publ.), 2nd ed., 2017, 512 pp., ISBN 789058756268.
  • Ref. 233B: "Luftwaffe Airfields 1935-1945 - The Netherlands", Henry L. deZeng, August 2014, 33 pp. [pdf]
  • Ref. 242: Generalstabskarte, Blatt-Nr. 4768 "Wiese", Provinz Niederschlesien, Reg. Bezirk Breslau, Kreise Trebnitz & Oels, Preußische Landesaufnahme, Reichsamt für Landesaufnahme, Ausgabe 1942. Source: "Overview and download of maps of Silesia, Poznań and Poland". Accessed 15 November 2019.
  • Ref. 244: Luftwaffe fighter intercept & control methods ("Jagdverfahren"), maps, and related topics
  • Ref. 244A: "Nachtjagd" [intro, descriptions, and evaluations], Luftwaffe document, date unknown, 18 pp. Source: German Russian Project for digitization of archives in the Russian Federation. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  • Ref. 244B: "Bestimmungen über Nachtjagd" [descriptions of methods, and instructions to Flak organisation regarding night fighting], 1st Flakdivision, Berlin, 19 November 1943, 12 pp. Source: German Russian Project for digitization of archives in the Russian Federation. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  • Ref. 244C: "Mosquito Nachtjagd", [specific fighter and flak tactics against incoming British "Mosquito" fighter-bombers] 1st Flakdivision, Berlin, 7 March 1944, 5 pp. Source: German Russian Project for digitization of archives in the Russian Federation. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  • Ref. 244D: "Das Y-verfahren für Tag- und Nachtjagd" [file size: 115 MB; good-but-lower-reslution file is here 36 MB], document without reference number, without date, without place, 113 pp. 
  • Complete description of the "Y" procedure for day & night fighter control from ground plotting stations with short wave equipment.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/38, used in accordance with "Erstinformation für Ihren Besuch im Bundesarchiv in Freiburg, Stand Juni 2016".
  • Ref. 244E: "Anlage 1 zu Luftflottenführungsabteilung Ia op2 Nr. 500/41 geh." [file size: 28 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 4 MB]. Map is not dated.
  • Map covers area of Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, northern Germany incl. Berlin. Map is marked with locations of militärische Sperrgebiete, Nachtsperrgebiete, Nachtjagdgebiete, Dunkle Nachtjagdsräume.
  • Map size: 4x2 (WxH) A4-sheets. Map is low-quality blueprint copy.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 20/186/K.
  • Ref. 244F: "Einsatzbeispiel für einen Feindeinflug" (example of response to intruding enemy aircraft). Map is not dated. [file size: 84 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 10 MB].
  • Map shows ground track of enemy bomber stream arriving from Britain with target Frankfurt, intercepting fighters, timing, etc. Map includes large & detailed table of the entire nightfighter intercept process, from long-range radar detection to "kill", with step-by-step status/activity/communication at the level of Flugmeldekompanie, Nachtjagdraum, Fühlungshalter, Jagdgruppe, Flugmeldungszentrale, Fluko, and Flak; the entire sequence covers 1 hr 40 min.
  • Map size: 4x5 (WxH) A4-sheets.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 36/443.
  • Ref. 244G: "Luft-Navigationskarte in Merkatorprojektion - Erweitertest Blatt Deutschland mit Jägernetz", Bodenorganisation Großraum-Nachtjagd Luftflotte Reich, July 1944. Source: Bestand/File 500, Findbuch/Index 12452, Akte/record 286 of the German-Russian Project for the Digitization of German Documents in Archives of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  • Ref. 244H: "Nederland en de Duitse Nachtjacht - Van jager tot prooi" (The Netherlands and German night fighting - from hunter to prey), W.H. Lutgert, R. de Winter, pp. 536- 545 in "Militaire Spectator", vol. 183, nr. 12, December 1994. Accessed September 2019. [pdf]
  • Ref. 244J: "Nederland en de Duitse Nachtjacht - Van jager tot prooi (Deel 2)" (The Netherlands and German night fighting - from hunter to prey - part 2), W.H. Lutgert, R. de Winter, pp. 5-17 in "Militaire Spectator", vol. 184, nr. 1, January 1995. Accessed September 2019. [pdf]
  • Ref. 244K: "De Luftwaffe en Nederland - Balans van een oorlogserfenis" (The Luftwaffe and The Netherlands - legacy of a war), W.H. Lutgert, R. de Winter, pp. 450- 459 in "Militaire Spectator", vol. 184, nr. 10, October 1995. Accessed September 2019. [pdf]
  • Ref. 244L: "Nachtjagdnavigationskarte - herausgegeben von NJG.3.-NO" [night-fighter navigation chart issued by the Nachrichten-Offizier of the no. 3 night fighter-wing, Nachtjagdgeschwader 3]. [file size: 25 MB]
  • Map is not dated. Bernhard-stations Be-0, Be-6, Be-8 through Be-12 are also marked on this map. Source: collection R. Grywatz.
  • Ref. 244M: "Tag- und Nachtjagd, 3. Jagddivision (als beispiel)". Map is dated 29 July 1944. [file size: 24 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 9 MB].
  • Map covers area of The Netherlands to Heilbronn/Germany. Map is marked with location of Tagjagdstellungen and Fu.M.G. sites (1., 2., and 3. Ordnung; dunajafähig vs. nicht dunajafähig).
  • Map size ca 3x2 (WxH) sheets of size A4. Map scale 1:1.000.000
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL-3-1527.
  • Ref. 244N: "Jagd-Einsatz im November 1943", Anlage 3 (appendix 3) to "Lfl.Kdo3, Führ.Abt(1)/1c No. 15684/43 Kdos". [file size: 19 MB]
  • Large bar graph for each day of November 1943, with total number of fighter sorties for each day, split into "day" and "night" fighter. Also: table with statistics for each day: number (with type(s) of aircraft) for each type of sortie/mission: "Alarmstart" / "Überwachung und Sperre" / "Geleitschutz" / "Begleitschutz u. Augnahme"; / "Nachtjagd" (night fighter) / "Fernjagd" (long range intercept); also: total number of sorties/missions, number of enemy kills (incl. type of enemy aircraft), own losses.
  • Size: size: ca. 3x3½ (WxH) A4-sheets.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL-3-1527.
  • Ref. 244P: "Abschüsse der Nachtjagd im Bereich Luftwaffenbefehlshaber Mitte", Anlage 2 (appendix 2).
  • Graph with three lines: "hell" (helle Nachtjagd), "dunkel" (dunkle Nachtjagd), "kombiniert" (kombinierte Nachtjagd). Graph covers monthly statistics regarding enemy kills for the period April 1941 - March 1942.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL-3-1527.
  • Ref. 244Q: "Anzahl der voll u. bedingt (ab Juli 1941) bzw. eingeschränkt (ab Mai 1943) einsatzfähigern Besatzungen" and "Anzahl der einsatzbereiten Kampf-Flugzeuge" .  [file size: 17 MB]
  • Graph with monthly statistics for the period mid-1939 - mid-1939: number of available flight crews and number of operational fighter planes), separate curves for "Tagjäger" (day fighters) and "Nachtjäger" (night fighters; from late 1940 onward).
  • Also: interesting large table with 53 key dates of the WW2, from 1 September 1939 (German invasion of Poland) through 15 August 1944 (anglo-american landing in southern France).
  • Size: ca. 1½ x3 (WxH) A4-sheets.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL-3-1527.
  • Ref. 245: Würzburg radar FuMG39/FuSE62
  • Ref. 245A: "Funk-Sende-Empfangsgerät FuSE 62 (Flak-Meßgerät FMG 39 T)", Werkstattbuch part E 01-1, 7 pp. Source: www.cdvandt.org. Retrieved 2 September 2019. [pdf]
  • Ref. 245B: "Das Orten mit Fu.M.G. 39 T bei Feindstörung" [target location with FuMG 39T radar during enemy jamming & chaff/window/reflectors], Merkblatt, 1st Flakdivision, 6 January 1944, 33 pp.Source: German Russian Project for digitization of archives in the Russian Federation. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  • Ref. 245C: "Deckname „Würzburg“", Arthur O. Bauer, Verlag Historischer Technikerliteratur (publ.), 1966, 133 pp. Source: www.cdvandt.org. Retrieved 2 September 2019. [pdf]
  • Ref. 245D: "Geschichte der Funkortung - Funktionsmodell des Funkmessgerätes „Würzburg‟ FuMG 62 (D)", Hans-Peter Opitz, pp. 12-16 in "Funkgeschichte - Mitteilungen der Gesellschatf der Freunde der Geschichte des Funkwesens", Vol. 34, Vol. 195, February/March 2011.  See note 1
  • Ref. 246: "Karte POM-WPRU-DANZIG ca. 1938", F. Schulz, 2003. Retrieved 2 September 2019. [pdf]
  • Ref. 250: "Gutachtliche Aüßerung zur Entschädigung des Bauvorhabens der Luftwaffe „Anlage Bernhard“ auf dem Kaisersberg b. Raschen (Trebnitz)" (expert statement regarding compensation for the Luftwaffe "Bernhard installation" construction project on the Kaiserberg near Raschen (Trebnitz)), Luftgaukommando VIII, Breslau, 26 July 1944, 2 pp.
  • This is a poor quality 2-sided carbon copy of original document; a transcript is here.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 19-8/75, used in accordance with "Erstinformation für Ihren Besuch im Bundesarchiv in Freiburg, Stand Juni 2016".
  • Ref. 251: "Rufzeichen und Frequenzen für den Flugsicherungsfunkverkehr der E - Häfen", p. 34 in "Besondere Anforderungen für Nachrichtenverbindungen - Anlage z. Armeebefehl No. 23", 30 September 1939, 48 pp. Source: German Russian Project for digitization of archives in the Russian Federation (Bestand 500 Findbuch 12472 Akte 639 ). Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  • Ref. 252: "Rhubarb operations: Appendix V - German navigational beam stations. France, Holland and Belgium", AIR 40/1661, 142 pp., 1942 (with amendments made in 1942 and 1943), Air Ministry, Directorate of Intelligence and related bodies: Intelligence Reports and Papers, deputy Director of Air Tactics. Document pages are not numbered. Item is in the collection of The National Archives; material with UK Crown Copyright, used in accordance with the Open Government License [pdf].
  • A "Rhubarb" was a routine tactical operation, in which a small number of RAF aircraft flew at low-level into France or Belgium, to strafe ground targets.
  • The document covers beam stations (Knickebein, Y, X, and "Knickebeins of a new type" = Bernhard) at Commana, La Feuillée, Lanmeur, Laye, Beaumont-Hague, Jobourg, Sortosville-en-Baeumont, Mt. Pincon, Grény, Mt. Violette, Mt. de la Louve, Cassel/La Croix Rouge, Bergen op Zoom, Julianadorp, Bayeux/Le Mesnil, St. Valery-en-Caux/St. Martin-aux-Bunaux, St. Valery-en-Caux/Conteville de Palleul, Desvres/Le Bois Julien ( = Bernhard station Be-3), Boulogne/Boursin, Petten/Groet, Beaumont-Hague, St.-Pierre-Eglise/Dargougerie, Boulogne/Equihen, Sizun/St. Michel ( = Mt.-St.-Michel-de-Brasparts, Bernhard station Be-2), Morlaix/Plougourvest, St. Vaas/La Pennelle ( = La Pernelle; Bernhard station Be-4).
  • Ref. 252A: "Desvres/Le Bois-Julien (Target V/18)", 4 pp. (including 2 photos and 1 site/area layout map; pp. 108-111 in the complete document). Observations: circular concrete base appr. 100 ft in diameter. Hut at the center of the array. Mast some 50 ft high at 600 yards to northwest of the installation, connected by underground cable. Photos from recce sorties in March and June of 1941.
  • Ref. 252B: "Sizun/St Michel (Target V/24)", 3 pp. (including 1 photo and 1 site/area layout map; pp. 134-135 in the complete document). Photo from September 1942 recce sortie. Observations: circular concrete base appr. 100 ft in diameter. Hut at the center of the array. Cable trench of ca. 950 ft in westerly direction, to short mast.
  • Ref. 252C: "St. Vaast/La Pennelle (Target V/26)", 4 pp. (including 2 photos and 1 site/area layout map; pp. 139-142 in the complete document). Observations: circular concrete base appr. 100 ft in diameter. Hut at the center of the array. Photos from recce sorties in April and September of 1942. Note: "La Pernelle" is misspelled as "La Pennelle".
  • The complete 142 pp. document is here [file size: 108 MB].
  • Ref. 255: "Bestandsbeschreibung Bestandssignatur BArch RL 21 "Fliegerhorstkommandanturen und Flugplatzkommandos der Luftwaffe"" [archive file content description]. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  • Ref. 258: "BP OLEX Flieger-Navigationskarte" [air navigation chart that covers the entire German Reich] (also available here), "Olex" Deutsche Benzin- und Petroleum-Gesellschaft m.b.H., map reflects status of May 1939. Accessed 1 June 2020.
  • Ref. 260: "Die Friedensstadt bei Glau. Zur Geschichte eines märkischen Dorfes", Günter Nagel, pp. 227-241 in "Jahrbuch für brandenburgische Landesgeschichte", Vol. 55, 2004, 304 pp.
  • Ref. 264: articles by Norbert Prothmann, in "Excursionsführen der Fachtagung Deutsche Westbefestigungen 2017" (Westwalltag 2017):
  • Ref. 264A: "Die Jagdwaffe und ihre Flugplätze im Umfeld der Stadt Stuttgart", Norbert Prothmann, 6 August 2017, 30 pp. See note 1
  • Ref. 264B: "Luftangriffe auf Stuttgart und Umgebung", Norbert Prothmann, 10 August 2017, 19 pp. See note 1
  • Ref. 267: "Gemeentekaart van Nederland", 1944 topographical map of The Netherlands, source: topotijdreis.nl, accessed 14-Sept-2020.

Note 1: due to copyright reasons, this file is in a password-protected directory. Contact me if you need access for research or personal study purposes.

External links last checked: January 2019


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